European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association
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Mortality vs. Procedure

Results

Primary Procedure Name No of operations 30-day Deaths 30-day Mortality Hospital Mortality
VSD repair, Patch 34679 254 0.74%% 0.87%%
ASD repair, Patch 15475 47 0.30%% 0.36%%
PDA closure, Surgical 10052 227 2.27%% 3.14%%
TOF repair, Ventriculotomy, Transanular patch 8354 200 2.40%% 2.62%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt (MBTS) 7659 607 8.52%% 9.98%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, Complete (CAVSD) 7260 304 4.20%% 5.16%%
ASD repair, Primary closure 7216 37 0.51%% 0.57%%
Arterial switch operation (ASO) 7080 356 5.04%% 5.65%%
Coarctation repair, End to end, Extended 6230 110 1.77%% 2.36%%
Bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BDCPA) (bidirectional Glenn) 6133 202 3.32%% 4.51%%
PA banding (PAB) 5182 344 6.92%% 9.65%%
Coarctation repair, End to end 4177 71 1.70%% 2.11%%
Norwood procedure 3816 917 24.11%% 28.74%%
Pacemaker procedure 3695 44 1.43%% 1.78%%
Valvuloplasty, Mitral 3669 104 2.95%% 4.05%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, Partial (Incomplete) (PAVSD) 3524 32 0.91%% 1.02%%
Aortic stenosis, Subvalvar, Repair 3472 34 1.01%% 1.28%%
Pacemaker implantation, Permanent 3410 74 2.25%% 3.34%%
Fontan, TCPC, External conduit, Fenestrated 3262 118 3.63%% 4.46%%
TAPVC repair 3195 223 7.08%% 9.05%%
Conduit placement, RV to PA 3171 98 3.17%% 3.84%%
VSD repair, Primary closure 2921 39 1.34%% 1.58%%
Arterial switch operation (ASO) and VSD repair 2891 241 8.34%% 9.48%%
TOF repair, Ventriculotomy, Nontransanular patch 2875 38 1.32%% 1.43%%
Valvuloplasty, Aortic 2743 57 2.17%% 2.70%%
Mediastinal exploration 2533 408 20.08%% 23.77%%
TOF repair, No ventriculotomy 2519 29 1.15%% 1.31%%
Conduit reoperation 2460 61 2.61%% 2.86%%
PAPVC repair 2309 20 0.87%% 1.00%%
RVOT procedure 2197 109 5.04%% 5.60%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR), Mechanical 2118 29 1.39%% 1.58%%
Aortic arch repair 2056 161 8.01%% 10.35%%
DORV, Intraventricular tunnel repair 1997 111 5.60%% 6.10%%
Valve replacement, Pulmonic (PVR) 1966 28 1.43%% 1.74%%
Valve replacement, Mitral (MVR) 1834 137 7.90%% 9.51%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, Central (from aorta or to main pulmonary artery) 1784 202 11.79%% 13.60%%
Pericardial drainage procedure 1703 64 3.91%% 4.71%%
Vascular ring repair 1685 8 0.48%% 0.96%%
Fontan, TCPC, External conduit, Nonfenestrated 1657 37 2.24%% 3.21%%
ECMO procedure 1637 636 52.78%% 58.51%%
Truncus arteriosus repair 1406 198 14.19%% 16.92%%
Valvuloplasty, Tricuspid 1396 56 4.09%% 5.47%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, Intermediate (Transitional) 1388 19 1.38%% 1.52%%
Coarctation repair, Patch aortoplasty 1200 39 3.32%% 4.00%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Main (trunk) 1115 48 4.36%% 5.18%%
Miscellaneous procedure, Other 1113 97 9.84%% 12.88%%
Ross procedure 1100 17 1.55%% 2.01%%
ECMO cannulation 1037 377 38.79%% 45.88%%
Pulmonary atresia - VSD (including TOF, PA) repair 1027 46 4.49%% 5.37%%
Bilateral bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BBDCPA) (bilateral bidirectional Glenn) 1009 42 4.18%% 5.88%%
Interrupted aortic arch repair 1005 117 11.69%% 13.99%%
Valvuloplasty, Pulmonic 988 22 2.30%% 2.82%%
VSD, Multiple, Repair 979 32 3.36%% 4.52%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Device implantation 969 4 0.42%% 0.52%%
ECMO decannulation 953 261 29.23%% 36.06%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Balloon dilation 923 19 2.27%% 2.99%%
Aortic stenosis, Supravalvar, Repair 899 45 5.13%% 5.58%%
Thoracic and/or mediastinal procedure, Other 876 70 9.11%% 10.68%%
Other procedure 859 91 12.23%% 15.46%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Branch, Central (within the hilar bifurcation) 850 54 6.55%% 8.24%%
Aortic root replacement, Mechanical 822 20 2.46%% 2.71%%
Sternotomy wound drainage 817 41 5.86%% 7.86%%
Transplant, Heart 807 58 7.20%% 10.31%%
Mediastinal procedure 801 79 11.40%% 13.71%%
DCRV repair 774 9 1.17%% 1.30%%
Pleural drainage procedure 772 55 8.09%% 11.03%%
Aortic arch repair + VSD repair 751 27 3.60%% 5.33%%
Anomalous origin of coronary artery from pulmonary artery repair 748 28 3.77%% 4.71%%
Aortic aneurysm repair 744 14 1.91%% 2.45%%
Diaphragm plication 726 27 3.88%% 9.06%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Coil implantation 712 4 0.58%% 0.58%%
ASD repair, Patch + PAPVC repair 699 1 0.14%% 0.14%%
Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure (DKS) (creation of AP anastomosis without arch reconstruction) 669 126 18.95%% 22.26%%
PA debanding 644 55 8.73%% 12.86%%
Ebstein's repair 626 39 6.47%% 8.29%%
Lung procedure, Other 609 16 2.81%% 4.21%%
ASD repair, Device 597 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
ASD creation/enlargement 596 120 20.24%% 24.79%%
Fontan, TCPC, Lateral tunnel, Fenestrated 590 22 3.76%% 4.62%%
PDA closure, Device 585 1 0.17%% 0.34%%
TOF repair, RV-PA conduit 577 29 5.08%% 5.78%%
Right/left heart assist device procedure 572 81 27.65%% 40.61%%
Unifocalization MAPCA(s) 557 47 9.33%% 11.51%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Stent insertion 546 57 11.38%% 12.97%%
Aortic stenosis, Subvalvar, Repair, With myectomy for IHSS 536 4 0.75%% 1.32%%
Cardiac procedure, Other 519 66 13.50%% 15.34%%
Fontan, Other 518 27 5.23%% 6.20%%
VSD repair, Device 516 3 0.58%% 0.78%%
Cor triatriatum repair 515 17 3.31%% 4.29%%
Ross-Konno procedure 508 49 9.65%% 11.61%%
Valve replacement, Tricuspid (TVR) 507 47 9.71%% 12.40%%
Pulmonary atresia - VSD - MAPCA (pseudotruncus) repair 503 44 8.89%% 11.72%%
Glenn (unidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis) (unidirectional Glenn) 492 8 1.64%% 2.45%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR), Bioprosthetic 489 10 2.07%% 2.69%%
Pulmonary venous stenosis repair 481 40 9.30%% 14.88%%
AP window repair 465 5 1.08%% 1.52%%
PFO, Primary closure 464 8 1.72%% 2.16%%
Rastelli 449 31 7.00%% 7.67%%
Cardiac tumor resection 442 23 5.29%% 5.98%%
ICD (AICD) implantation 435 6 1.43%% 1.67%%
Coarctation repair, Other 427 18 4.23%% 4.46%%
Fontan, TCPC, Lateral tunnel, Nonfenestrated 423 10 2.36%% 3.07%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Branch, Peripheral (at or beyond the hilar bifurcation) 416 21 5.19%% 8.15%%
Valve surgery, Other, Mitral 405 13 3.29%% 4.30%%
HemiFontan 400 23 5.78%% 8.29%%
TOF - AVC (AVSD) repair 390 39 10.03%% 11.05%%
TOF - Absent pulmonary valve repair 387 36 9.30%% 12.66%%
Coarctation repair, Subclavian flap 385 8 2.09%% 3.13%%
Tracheal procedure 372 25 7.25%% 11.01%%
Thoracotomy, Other 371 50 14.97%% 19.16%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, Other 369 58 16.43%% 18.98%%
Coarctation repair, Interposition graft 367 6 1.63%% 1.91%%
Pectus repair 359 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Coarctation repair + VSD repair 359 12 3.34%% 4.74%%
Coronary artery procedure, Other 357 29 8.26%% 9.40%%
Aortic root replacement, Valve sparing 337 3 0.89%% 0.89%%
Shunt, Ligation and takedown 330 36 11.04%% 12.58%%
ICD (AICD) ([automatic] implantable cardioverter defibrillator) procedure 312 3 1.16%% 1.16%%
Peripheral vascular procedure, Other 307 18 6.59%% 8.79%%
Palliation, Other 304 44 14.77%% 17.11%%
ASD creation, Balloon septostomy (BAS) (Rashkind) 303 22 7.53%% 9.25%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic 288 2 0.72%% 0.72%%
Konno procedure 280 19 6.79%% 8.57%%
Fontan revision or conversion (Re-do Fontan) 267 37 14.02%% 15.91%%
Valve surgery, Other, Pulmonic 266 8 3.01%% 4.14%%
Valve surgery, Other, Aortic 259 17 6.69%% 7.09%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Septostomy 234 17 7.30%% 10.30%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Balloon valvotomy 231 8 3.51%% 4.39%%
Shunt, Reoperation 221 31 15.90%% 18.46%%
PAPVC repair, Baffle redirection to left atrium with systemic vein translocation (Warden) (SVC sewn to right atrial appendage) 219 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
REV 218 13 5.96%% 6.42%%
PAPVC, Scimitar, Repair 212 2 0.97%% 2.90%%
Coronary artery fistula ligation 211 2 0.96%% 0.96%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Branch, Central 208 12 5.91%% 6.90%%
Pulmonary artery sling repair 207 6 2.91%% 4.85%%
ASD, Common atrium (single atrium), Septation 201 4 2.01%% 2.01%%
Aortic root replacement, Homograft 201 12 6.09%% 7.61%%
VAD implantation 195 41 22.28%% 32.61%%
Senning 191 20 10.58%% 12.70%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, Atrial switch and ASO (double switch) 178 15 8.47%% 11.86%%
HLHS biventricular repair 172 20 11.70%% 14.62%%
Aortic root replacement, Bioprosthetic 171 6 3.55%% 4.14%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR) 167 5 2.99%% 2.99%%
Coronary artery bypass 164 9 5.70%% 6.96%%
Sinus of Valsalva, Aneurysm repair 162 1 0.62%% 0.62%%
Arterial switch procedure and VSD repair + Aortic arch repair 160 14 8.75%% 10.00%%
Mitral stenosis, Supravalvar mitral ring repair 156 1 0.66%% 2.63%%
DORV repair, NOS 150 6 4.05%% 4.73%%
Lung biopsy 148 9 6.21%% 9.66%%
1 1/2 ventricular repair 137 4 2.92%% 3.65%%
Hybrid Approach "Stage 1", Application of RPA & LPA bands 135 26 19.26%% 28.89%%
VSD creation/enlargement 132 17 13.18%% 18.60%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic 127 4 4.00%% 6.00%%
ASD partial closure 126 8 6.35%% 6.35%%
Ligation, Thoracic duct 126 9 7.20%% 14.40%%
Anomalous systemic venous connection repair 126 7 5.65%% 6.45%%
Pulmonary artery origin from ascending aorta (hemitruncus) repair 121 2 1.65%% 2.48%%
Valve surgery, Other, Tricuspid 119 21 17.95%% 19.66%%
LV to aorta tunnel repair 114 5 4.42%% 4.42%%
Systemic venous stenosis repair 106 7 6.86%% 11.76%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Angiographic data obtained 102 9 9.68%% 10.75%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, Atrial switch and Rastelli 101 13 12.87%% 14.85%%
TOF repair, NOS 100 2 2.00%% 4.00%%
Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery from aorta (AAOCA) repair 98 1 1.02%% 1.02%%
ASD repair, NOS 93 1 1.08%% 1.08%%
Pericardiectomy 92 0 0.00%% 3.30%%
Decortication 90 4 4.49%% 5.62%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Hemodynamic data obtained 89 8 9.41%% 11.76%%
Explantation of pacing system 89 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Aortopexy 88 3 3.53%% 8.24%%
Occlusion MAPCA(s) 88 5 5.95%% 8.33%%
VSD repair, NOS 87 3 3.45%% 4.60%%
Pleural procedure, Other 86 5 6.58%% 11.84%%
Hybrid Approach "Stage 1", Stent placement in arterial duct (PDA) + application of RPA & LPA bands 85 28 32.94%% 49.41%%
Valve excision, Pulmonary (without replacement) 83 3 3.61%% 3.61%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, VSD closure 77 3 3.90%% 7.79%%
Aneurysm, Ventricular, Left, Repair 77 2 2.74%% 4.11%%
Atrial septal fenestration 76 11 14.67%% 20.00%%
TGA, Other procedures (Nikaido, Kawashima, LV-PA conduit, other) 72 9 12.86%% 12.86%%
VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery) 71 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR), Homograft 70 1 1.43%% 1.43%%
Mustard 69 8 11.76%% 17.65%%
Cardiotomy, Other 67 8 12.50%% 15.62%%
Pericardial procedure, Other 65 5 7.81%% 12.50%%
Minimally invasive procedure 62 6 10.53%% 10.53%%
Aneurysm, Ventricular, Right, Repair 62 3 4.84%% 6.45%%
Aortic root translocation over left ventricle (Including Nikaidoh procedure) 59 2 3.39%% 6.78%%
Bronchoscopy 58 5 9.62%% 17.31%%
Coarctation repair, NOS 56 4 7.27%% 7.27%%
Transplant, lung(s) 54 6 11.54%% 19.23%%
Valvuloplasty, Common atrioventricular valve 54 8 16.67%% 27.08%%
Valve closure, Tricuspid (exclusion, univentricular approach) 53 17 32.69%% 42.31%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Mitral 53 4 7.55%% 7.55%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, VSD closure and LV to PA conduit 51 0 0.00%% 1.96%%
Aortic dissection repair 50 6 12.00%% 12.00%%
Arrhythmia surgery - atrial, Surgical Ablation 50 3 6.12%% 6.12%%
VAD explantation 49 6 12.50%% 22.92%%
Conduit placement, LV to PA 47 1 2.17%% 6.52%%
Atrial baffle procedure (non-Mustard, non-Senning) 46 2 4.35%% 4.35%%
Non-cardiovascular, Non-thoracic procedure on cardiac patient with cardiac anesthesia 45 4 10.00%% 10.00%%
TGA, Other procedures (Kawashima, LV-PA conduit, other) 41 2 5.00%% 5.00%%
Diaphragm procedure, Other 40 6 15.38%% 20.51%%
Organ procurement 40 2 5.13%% 7.69%%
Fontan, Atrio-pulmonary connection 40 2 5.00%% 7.50%%
Conduit placement, Other 40 3 7.50%% 7.50%%
TAPVC repair + Shunt - systemic-to-pulmonary 39 10 25.64%% 46.15%%
Truncus + Interrupted aortic arch repair (IAA) repair 38 3 7.89%% 7.89%%
Aneurysm, Pulmonary artery, Repair 38 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, NOS 37 6 16.67%% 16.67%%
Arterial switch procedure + Aortic arch repair 37 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Fontan, TCPC, External conduit, NOS 37 3 8.11%% 10.81%%
Pulmonary embolectomy, Acute pulmonary embolus 36 9 25.71%% 31.43%%
Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA reconstruction 36 2 5.56%% 5.56%%
Hybrid approach "Stage 2", Aortopulmonary amalgamation + Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA Debanding + Aortic arch repair (Norwood [Stage 1] + Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA Debanding) 35 8 23.53%% 32.35%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Stent re-dilation 35 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty, Truncal valve 31 1 3.33%% 3.33%%
Valve replacement, Common atrioventricular valve 31 3 9.68%% 19.35%%
DOLV repair 31 3 9.68%% 9.68%%
Bypass for noncardiac lesion 30 7 25.00%% 25.00%%
PDA closure, NOS 30 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Aortic root replacement 30 1 3.33%% 3.33%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Transcatheter implantation of valve 29 1 3.45%% 3.45%%
Other annular enlargement procedure 27 4 14.81%% 14.81%%
Atrial baffle procedure, Mustard or Senning revision 27 2 7.41%% 7.41%%
Cardiovascular electrophysiological catheterization procedure, Therapeutic ablation 25 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Perforation (establishing interchamber and/or intervessel communication) 24 3 12.50%% 12.50%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, NOS 23 2 8.70%% 8.70%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Aortic 23 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Ligation, Pulmonary artery 23 4 17.39%% 17.39%%
RF ablation 22 1 4.55%% 4.55%%
Valve replacement, Truncal valve 22 1 4.76%% 4.76%%
Valve closure, Semilunar 22 4 18.18%% 18.18%%
Conduit placement, Ventricle to aorta 21 3 14.29%% 14.29%%
Arrhythmia surgery - ventricular, Surgical Ablation 19 1 5.26%% 5.26%%
ASD creation, Blade septostomy 19 2 10.53%% 10.53%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, Other 19 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Esophageal procedure 17 1 6.67%% 6.67%%
Pulmonary embolectomy 17 2 12.50%% 12.50%%
Transplant, Heart and lung 16 3 18.75%% 18.75%%
Ventricular septal fenestration 16 2 12.50%% 12.50%%
Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion 14 6 46.15%% 53.85%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Tricuspid 14 1 7.14%% 14.29%%
Fontan, NOS 13 1 7.69%% 7.69%%
Partial left ventriculectomy (LV volume reduction surgery) (Batista) 12 0 0.00%% 9.09%%
Valve excision, Tricuspid (without replacement) 12 2 16.67%% 16.67%%
Hybrid Approach "Stage 1", Stent placement in arterial duct (PDA) 12 4 33.33%% 58.33%%
Fontan + Atrioventricular valvuloplasty 11 0 0.00%% 9.09%%
Superior cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) (Glenn or HemiFontan) + Atrioventricular valvuloplasty 10 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Ventricular septation 10 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Fontan, TCPC, Lateral tunnel, NOS 9 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Pulmonary AV fistula repair/occlusion 9 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Echocardiography procedure, Sedated transesophageal echocardiogram 6 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, NOS 6 1 16.67%% 16.67%%
Atrial fenestration closure 5 1 20.00%% 20.00%%
Fontan, Atrio-ventricular connection 5 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Pulmonary embolectomy, Chronic pulmonary embolus 4 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Aortic - with Ross procedure 4 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Aortic - with Ross-Konno procedure 4 1 25.00%% 25.00%%
Cardiovascular electrophysiological catheterization procedure 4 1 25.00%% 25.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Pulmonic 4 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Hemodynamic alteration 2 2 100.00%% 100.00%%
Echocardiography procedure, Sedated transthoracic echocardiogram 2 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Transcatheter Fontan completion 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Radiology procedure on cardiac patient, Cardiac Computerized Axial Tomography (CT Scan) 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Electrophysiology alteration 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Adjunctive therapy 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Common atrioventricular valve 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Hybrid approach "Stage 2", Aortopulmonary amalgamation + Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA Debanding + Without aortic arch repair 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
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