European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association
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Mortality vs. Procedure

Results

Primary Procedure Name All 30-day Deaths 30-day Mortality Hospital Mortality
VSD repair, Patch 32057 243 0.76%% 0.90%%
ASD repair, Patch 14403 46 0.32%% 0.37%%
PDA closure, Surgical 9686 225 2.33%% 3.22%%
TOF repair, Ventriculotomy, Transanular patch 7906 194 2.46%% 2.69%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt (MBTS) 7260 585 8.66%% 10.11%%
ASD repair, Primary closure 6963 35 0.50%% 0.56%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, Complete (CAVSD) 6934 296 4.29%% 5.29%%
Arterial switch operation (ASO) 6724 342 5.10%% 5.74%%
Coarctation repair, End to end, Extended 5885 106 1.81%% 2.37%%
Bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BDCPA) (bidirectional Glenn) 5854 194 3.35%% 4.47%%
PA banding (PAB) 4760 329 7.22%% 9.89%%
Coarctation repair, End to end 3997 69 1.73%% 2.15%%
Norwood procedure 3649 893 24.55%% 28.97%%
Pacemaker procedure 3522 39 1.32%% 1.69%%
Valvuloplasty, Mitral 3412 100 3.04%% 4.20%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, Partial (Incomplete) (PAVSD) 3344 31 0.93%% 1.05%%
Aortic stenosis, Subvalvar, Repair 3310 32 1.00%% 1.25%%
Pacemaker implantation, Permanent 3229 70 2.24%% 3.30%%
Fontan, TCPC, External conduit, Fenestrated 3092 115 3.73%% 4.61%%
TAPVC repair 2999 214 7.24%% 9.28%%
Conduit placement, RV to PA 2992 93 3.18%% 3.86%%
VSD repair, Primary closure 2866 39 1.37%% 1.58%%
Arterial switch operation (ASO) and VSD repair 2771 233 8.41%% 9.50%%
TOF repair, Ventriculotomy, Nontransanular patch 2700 37 1.37%% 1.48%%
Valvuloplasty, Aortic 2590 53 2.13%% 2.57%%
TOF repair, No ventriculotomy 2413 27 1.12%% 1.29%%
Conduit reoperation 2388 59 2.60%% 2.86%%
Mediastinal exploration 2371 388 20.23%% 23.51%%
PAPVC repair 2160 20 0.93%% 1.02%%
RVOT procedure 2027 105 5.27%% 5.82%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR), Mechanical 1997 27 1.37%% 1.52%%
Aortic arch repair 1897 155 8.34%% 10.71%%
DORV, Intraventricular tunnel repair 1858 107 5.80%% 6.28%%
Valve replacement, Pulmonic (PVR) 1844 26 1.42%% 1.75%%
Valve replacement, Mitral (MVR) 1736 134 8.18%% 9.88%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, Central (from aorta or to main pulmonary artery) 1720 196 11.89%% 13.46%%
Pericardial drainage procedure 1670 66 4.11%% 4.85%%
Vascular ring repair 1582 8 0.51%% 1.02%%
ECMO procedure 1560 616 53.57%% 58.96%%
Fontan, TCPC, External conduit, Nonfenestrated 1530 35 2.29%% 3.21%%
Truncus arteriosus repair 1337 196 14.75%% 17.38%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, Intermediate (Transitional) 1301 19 1.47%% 1.63%%
Valvuloplasty, Tricuspid 1209 53 4.48%% 6.00%%
Coarctation repair, Patch aortoplasty 1111 37 3.41%% 4.06%%
Ross procedure 1078 17 1.58%% 1.96%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Main (trunk) 1013 42 4.20%% 5.10%%
Bilateral bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BBDCPA) (bilateral bidirectional Glenn) 960 41 4.28%% 5.96%%
Pulmonary atresia - VSD (including TOF, PA) repair 957 44 4.61%% 5.45%%
Miscellaneous procedure, Other 955 86 10.11%% 13.51%%
Interrupted aortic arch repair 947 113 11.98%% 14.42%%
ECMO cannulation 946 343 38.63%% 45.83%%
Valvuloplasty, Pulmonic 941 21 2.31%% 2.85%%
VSD, Multiple, Repair 912 31 3.50%% 4.63%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Balloon dilation 878 19 2.40%% 3.16%%
ECMO decannulation 852 233 29.20%% 35.59%%
Aortic stenosis, Supravalvar, Repair 834 42 5.15%% 5.52%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Branch, Central (within the hilar bifurcation) 812 51 6.46%% 8.10%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Device implantation 807 4 0.50%% 0.63%%
Thoracic and/or mediastinal procedure, Other 807 64 9.08%% 10.78%%
Aortic root replacement, Mechanical 782 20 2.59%% 2.85%%
Transplant, Heart 779 55 7.08%% 10.30%%
Sternotomy wound drainage 774 35 5.30%% 6.96%%
Mediastinal procedure 747 77 12.03%% 14.53%%
Other procedure 740 82 12.65%% 15.59%%
DCRV repair 739 9 1.22%% 1.36%%
Pleural drainage procedure 727 53 8.28%% 11.25%%
Aortic arch repair + VSD repair 718 26 3.62%% 5.43%%
Anomalous origin of coronary artery from pulmonary artery repair 715 28 3.94%% 4.78%%
Aortic aneurysm repair 709 12 1.71%% 2.29%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Coil implantation 706 4 0.58%% 0.58%%
Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure (DKS) (creation of AP anastomosis without arch reconstruction) 639 122 19.21%% 22.52%%
ASD repair, Patch + PAPVC repair 624 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Diaphragm plication 618 24 4.05%% 9.80%%
Lung procedure, Other 600 16 2.85%% 4.10%%
PA debanding 590 53 9.15%% 12.61%%
Ebstein's repair 583 36 6.42%% 8.38%%
Right/left heart assist device procedure 566 79 27.43%% 40.62%%
TOF repair, RV-PA conduit 563 28 5.03%% 5.75%%
ASD creation/enlargement 551 110 20.07%% 25.00%%
Fontan, TCPC, Lateral tunnel, Fenestrated 545 22 4.07%% 5.00%%
Unifocalization MAPCA(s) 532 45 9.32%% 11.39%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Stent insertion 531 57 11.68%% 13.11%%
ASD repair, Device 514 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Fontan, Other 511 26 5.11%% 6.09%%
PDA closure, Device 508 1 0.20%% 0.39%%
Aortic stenosis, Subvalvar, Repair, With myectomy for IHSS 503 4 0.80%% 1.20%%
Ross-Konno procedure 498 48 9.64%% 11.45%%
Cor triatriatum repair 488 17 3.50%% 4.53%%
Valve replacement, Tricuspid (TVR) 484 43 9.31%% 11.69%%
Cardiac procedure, Other 481 63 13.91%% 15.45%%
Pulmonary atresia - VSD - MAPCA (pseudotruncus) repair 475 43 9.19%% 11.75%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR), Bioprosthetic 465 9 1.96%% 2.17%%
Pulmonary venous stenosis repair 455 36 8.89%% 14.32%%
VSD repair, Device 453 3 0.66%% 0.88%%
AP window repair 442 4 0.91%% 1.37%%
PFO, Primary closure 428 8 1.87%% 2.34%%
Cardiac tumor resection 423 22 5.29%% 6.01%%
Rastelli 422 29 6.97%% 7.69%%
Glenn (unidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis) (unidirectional Glenn) 415 7 1.69%% 2.18%%
ICD (AICD) implantation 413 5 1.26%% 1.51%%
Fontan, TCPC, Lateral tunnel, Nonfenestrated 407 10 2.46%% 3.19%%
Coarctation repair, Other 404 18 4.47%% 4.71%%
Valve surgery, Other, Mitral 394 13 3.39%% 4.43%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Branch, Peripheral (at or beyond the hilar bifurcation) 384 19 5.09%% 8.04%%
Coarctation repair, Subclavian flap 375 7 1.88%% 2.95%%
HemiFontan 372 22 5.95%% 8.38%%
TOF - AVC (AVSD) repair 372 39 10.51%% 11.59%%
TOF - Absent pulmonary valve repair 358 35 9.78%% 13.41%%
Coarctation repair, Interposition graft 356 5 1.40%% 1.69%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, Other 355 57 16.81%% 19.47%%
Coarctation repair + VSD repair 345 12 3.48%% 4.93%%
Thoracotomy, Other 343 48 15.69%% 20.26%%
Coronary artery procedure, Other 334 29 8.84%% 10.06%%
Aortic root replacement, Valve sparing 331 4 1.21%% 1.21%%
Pectus repair 328 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Tracheal procedure 326 24 7.97%% 11.30%%
Shunt, Ligation and takedown 322 35 11.01%% 12.58%%
ICD (AICD) ([automatic] implantable cardioverter defibrillator) procedure 299 2 0.81%% 0.81%%
ASD creation, Balloon septostomy (BAS) (Rashkind) 298 22 7.67%% 8.71%%
Peripheral vascular procedure, Other 298 18 6.82%% 9.09%%
Palliation, Other 288 41 14.54%% 16.67%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic 284 2 0.73%% 0.73%%
Konno procedure 273 19 6.96%% 8.79%%
Fontan revision or conversion (Re-do Fontan) 255 35 13.83%% 15.81%%
Valve surgery, Other, Aortic 235 17 7.39%% 7.83%%
Valve surgery, Other, Pulmonic 222 8 3.60%% 4.50%%
REV 206 13 6.31%% 6.80%%
PAPVC, Scimitar, Repair 202 2 1.02%% 2.54%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Balloon valvotomy 202 7 3.50%% 4.50%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Septostomy 201 12 6.00%% 9.50%%
Shunt, Reoperation 197 27 15.43%% 17.71%%
PAPVC repair, Baffle redirection to left atrium with systemic vein translocation (Warden) (SVC sewn to right atrial appendage) 195 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
PA, reconstruction (plasty), Branch, Central 193 10 5.32%% 6.38%%
Aortic root replacement, Homograft 193 10 5.29%% 6.88%%
Coronary artery fistula ligation 189 2 1.07%% 1.07%%
ASD, Common atrium (single atrium), Septation 189 4 2.14%% 2.14%%
Pulmonary artery sling repair 189 6 3.19%% 5.32%%
VAD implantation 185 37 21.14%% 31.43%%
Senning 181 20 11.05%% 13.26%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, Atrial switch and ASO (double switch) 172 15 8.77%% 12.28%%
Aortic root replacement, Bioprosthetic 166 6 3.66%% 4.27%%
HLHS biventricular repair 163 19 11.73%% 13.58%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR) 161 5 3.11%% 3.11%%
Coronary artery bypass 161 9 5.81%% 7.10%%
Sinus of Valsalva, Aneurysm repair 154 1 0.65%% 0.65%%
Arterial switch procedure and VSD repair + Aortic arch repair 149 14 9.40%% 10.07%%
Mitral stenosis, Supravalvar mitral ring repair 146 1 0.70%% 2.82%%
Lung biopsy 143 9 6.43%% 10.00%%
1 1/2 ventricular repair 132 4 3.03%% 3.79%%
DORV repair, NOS 130 6 4.65%% 5.43%%
Ligation, Thoracic duct 125 9 7.26%% 15.32%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic 123 4 4.12%% 6.19%%
Anomalous systemic venous connection repair 121 7 5.88%% 6.72%%
VSD creation/enlargement 120 14 11.86%% 17.80%%
Hybrid Approach "Stage 1", Application of RPA & LPA bands 116 24 20.69%% 30.17%%
Pulmonary artery origin from ascending aorta (hemitruncus) repair 115 2 1.74%% 2.61%%
Valve surgery, Other, Tricuspid 114 21 18.75%% 20.54%%
ASD partial closure 114 8 7.02%% 7.02%%
LV to aorta tunnel repair 106 4 3.81%% 3.81%%
Systemic venous stenosis repair 100 7 7.29%% 12.50%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Angiographic data obtained 99 9 10.00%% 11.11%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, Atrial switch and Rastelli 96 13 13.54%% 15.62%%
TOF repair, NOS 96 2 2.08%% 4.17%%
ASD repair, NOS 92 1 1.09%% 1.09%%
Pleural procedure, Other 86 5 6.58%% 11.84%%
Decortication 86 4 4.71%% 5.88%%
Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery from aorta (AAOCA) repair 85 1 1.18%% 1.18%%
VSD repair, NOS 85 3 3.53%% 4.71%%
Explantation of pacing system 85 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Pericardiectomy 84 0 0.00%% 3.61%%
Occlusion MAPCA(s) 83 5 6.25%% 8.75%%
Hybrid Approach "Stage 1", Stent placement in arterial duct (PDA) + application of RPA & LPA bands 80 26 32.50%% 50.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Hemodynamic data obtained 79 8 10.53%% 13.16%%
Valve excision, Pulmonary (without replacement) 78 3 3.85%% 3.85%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, VSD closure 76 3 3.95%% 7.89%%
Aneurysm, Ventricular, Left, Repair 75 2 2.82%% 4.23%%
TGA, Other procedures (Nikaido, Kawashima, LV-PA conduit, other) 72 9 12.86%% 12.86%%
VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery) 71 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Mustard 67 8 12.12%% 18.18%%
Aortopexy 67 3 4.55%% 9.09%%
Atrial septal fenestration 66 11 16.92%% 23.08%%
Cardiotomy, Other 66 8 12.70%% 15.87%%
Valve replacement, Aortic (AVR), Homograft 66 1 1.52%% 1.52%%
Pericardial procedure, Other 64 4 6.35%% 11.11%%
Minimally invasive procedure 62 6 10.53%% 10.53%%
Aneurysm, Ventricular, Right, Repair 62 3 4.84%% 6.45%%
Aortic root translocation over left ventricle (Including Nikaidoh procedure) 56 2 3.57%% 5.36%%
Coarctation repair, NOS 56 4 7.27%% 7.27%%
Bronchoscopy 54 5 10.00%% 18.00%%
Transplant, lung(s) 54 6 11.54%% 19.23%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Mitral 51 4 7.84%% 7.84%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, VSD closure and LV to PA conduit 50 0 0.00%% 2.00%%
Arrhythmia surgery - atrial, Surgical Ablation 48 3 6.38%% 6.38%%
Valvuloplasty, Common atrioventricular valve 46 6 14.63%% 26.83%%
Atrial baffle procedure (non-Mustard, non-Senning) 46 2 4.35%% 4.35%%
Valve closure, Tricuspid (exclusion, univentricular approach) 46 15 33.33%% 40.00%%
VAD explantation 46 5 11.11%% 22.22%%
Aortic dissection repair 45 3 6.67%% 6.67%%
Non-cardiovascular, Non-thoracic procedure on cardiac patient with cardiac anesthesia 43 4 10.53%% 10.53%%
Conduit placement, LV to PA 43 1 2.33%% 6.98%%
TGA, Other procedures (Kawashima, LV-PA conduit, other) 42 2 4.88%% 4.88%%
Fontan, Atrio-pulmonary connection 40 2 5.00%% 7.50%%
Organ procurement 40 2 5.13%% 7.69%%
Aneurysm, Pulmonary artery, Repair 37 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Shunt, Systemic to pulmonary, NOS 37 6 16.67%% 16.67%%
TAPVC repair + Shunt - systemic-to-pulmonary 36 7 19.44%% 41.67%%
Conduit placement, Other 36 2 5.56%% 5.56%%
Truncus + Interrupted aortic arch repair (IAA) repair 35 2 5.71%% 5.71%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Stent re-dilation 34 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Fontan, TCPC, External conduit, NOS 33 3 9.09%% 12.12%%
Pulmonary embolectomy, Acute pulmonary embolus 32 9 29.03%% 32.26%%
Arterial switch procedure + Aortic arch repair 32 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA reconstruction 31 2 6.45%% 6.45%%
Aortic root replacement 30 1 3.33%% 3.33%%
Hybrid approach "Stage 2", Aortopulmonary amalgamation + Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA Debanding + Aortic arch repair (Norwood [Stage 1] + Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA Debanding) 29 8 28.57%% 35.71%%
Valvuloplasty, Truncal valve 29 1 3.57%% 3.57%%
Bypass for noncardiac lesion 29 7 25.93%% 25.93%%
DOLV repair 27 3 11.11%% 11.11%%
Other annular enlargement procedure 27 4 14.81%% 14.81%%
Valve replacement, Common atrioventricular valve 27 3 11.11%% 22.22%%
Diaphragm procedure, Other 27 5 18.52%% 25.93%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Transcatheter implantation of valve 27 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Atrial baffle procedure, Mustard or Senning revision 25 2 8.00%% 8.00%%
Cardiovascular electrophysiological catheterization procedure, Therapeutic ablation 24 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
PDA closure, NOS 24 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Aortic 22 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valve closure, Semilunar 22 4 18.18%% 18.18%%
RF ablation 22 1 4.55%% 4.55%%
AVC (AVSD) repair, NOS 22 2 9.09%% 9.09%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Perforation (establishing interchamber and/or intervessel communication) 22 3 13.64%% 13.64%%
Ligation, Pulmonary artery 21 4 19.05%% 19.05%%
Valve replacement, Truncal valve 20 1 5.00%% 5.00%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, Other 19 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Conduit placement, Ventricle to aorta 19 3 15.79%% 15.79%%
ASD creation, Blade septostomy 18 2 11.11%% 11.11%%
Esophageal procedure 17 1 6.67%% 6.67%%
Transplant, Heart and lung 16 3 18.75%% 18.75%%
Pulmonary embolectomy 16 2 13.33%% 13.33%%
Ventricular septal fenestration 16 2 12.50%% 12.50%%
Arrhythmia surgery - ventricular, Surgical Ablation 15 1 6.67%% 6.67%%
Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion 14 6 46.15%% 53.85%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Tricuspid 13 1 7.69%% 15.38%%
Fontan, NOS 13 1 7.69%% 7.69%%
Valve excision, Tricuspid (without replacement) 12 2 16.67%% 16.67%%
Partial left ventriculectomy (LV volume reduction surgery) (Batista) 12 0 0.00%% 9.09%%
Hybrid Approach "Stage 1", Stent placement in arterial duct (PDA) 11 4 36.36%% 54.55%%
Fontan + Atrioventricular valvuloplasty 11 0 0.00%% 9.09%%
Ventricular septation 10 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Pulmonary AV fistula repair/occlusion 8 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Fontan, TCPC, Lateral tunnel, NOS 8 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Congenitally corrected TGA repair, NOS 6 1 16.67%% 16.67%%
Superior cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) (Glenn or HemiFontan) + Atrioventricular valvuloplasty 5 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Pulmonic 5 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Fontan, Atrio-ventricular connection 5 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Atrial fenestration closure 4 1 25.00%% 25.00%%
Echocardiography procedure, Sedated transesophageal echocardiogram 3 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular electrophysiological catheterization procedure 3 1 33.33%% 33.33%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Aortic - with Ross-Konno procedure 3 1 33.33%% 33.33%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Aortic - with Ross procedure 3 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Pulmonary embolectomy, Chronic pulmonary embolus 3 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Hemodynamic alteration 2 2 100.00%% 100.00%%
Echocardiography procedure, Sedated transthoracic echocardiogram 2 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Transcatheter Fontan completion 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Diagnostic, Electrophysiology alteration 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Cardiovascular catheterization procedure, Therapeutic, Adjunctive therapy 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Radiology procedure on cardiac patient, Cardiac Computerized Axial Tomography (CT Scan) 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Hybrid approach "Stage 2", Aortopulmonary amalgamation + Superior Cavopulmonary anastomosis(es) + PA Debanding + Without aortic arch repair 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
Valvuloplasty converted to valve replacement in the same operation, Common atrioventricular valve 1 0 0.00%% 0.00%%
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